The flour-grinding industry is very important for the country. In the south it is especially allocated the district of Naples where make not only a flour, but also the well-known Italian macaroni, on which release Italy wins first place in the world.
The metallurgy gravitates mainly or to ports through which import raw materials and fuel for branch, or to the large centers of mechanical engineering, i.e. to sales markets. The largest and technically to the association "Findser". Four large iron and steel works - in Genoa, Naples,, Taranto is the center of branch. The main production which goes to the world market, is a thin holodnokatany sheet steel.
Petrochemical production is very various. Especially quickly the production of plastic which became to one of the main directions of specialization of Italy in the international division of labor, and also production of chemical fibers grows.
River transport in Italy is developed poorly due to the lack of the large rivers. Quickly enough civil aviation of Italy develops. aviation lines keep in contact of the largest cities of Italy with many cities of Europe, and also other continents. The largest airports of the country - Leonardo da Vinci near Rima, Malpensa and to Linatya about Milan serve as the important centers of the international network of airlines.
In Italy the animal husbandry role gradually raises. The dairy and meat animal husbandry prevails in the north of the country, for other areas the extensive animal husbandry with prevalence of a small cattle is characteristic.
The zinc-lead industry recycles imported polymetallic ores and local, arriving from fields on the island of Sardinia and in the Alps. Zinc smelting as more power-consuming industry gravitates to large thermal power plants or to large hydroelectric power stations. Svintsovoplavilny plants are located near Sardinian fields of polymetallic ores.
In Italy the role of the motor transport is exclusively great: 3/4 all overland transportation of goods is the share of it. About a half of highways is the share of northern Italy, in the south of the country density of a road network is much less.
Italy wins first place in Foreign Europe on production of rice, and on its productivity it is among the leading rice-growing countries of the world. The yew became habitual food of Italians long ago. It is grown up on the irrigated lands of the Padansky plain.
Foreign economic relations are vital for economic development of Italy. Nearly 15% of all import are made by oil. Italy imports also raw materials for metallurgical, etc. Industries machines, industrial equipment, wood, paper, different types of the food. The main articles of export - production of mechanical engineering, mainly vehicles, various equipment writing and calculating machines, agricultural and foodstuff, especially fruit vegetables, tinned tomatoes, cheeses, outer garments, footwear, production of chemistry and petrochemistry. Business is especially actively done France and Germany.
Due to the elongation of the country from the North on the South its network iron and highways developed mainly in the meridional direction. The width communications, except for the Padansky plain, it is not enough. Many automobile and the railroads of Italy are paved on steep slopes of mountains and therefore have many bridges, tunnels that raises the price of their operation.
The Italian chemical industry works generally at import raw materials (mainly it is oil, natural gas, phosphorites, sulfur, cellulose, but also partially uses also own stocks of chemical raw materials, first of all natural gas, pyrites, potash salts and sulfur.
Italy very insufficiently is also unevenly provided with raw material and energy resources. Natural gas, pyrites, polymetallic ores, potash salts, cinnabar from minerals of the country (mercury ores, asbestos and some other are distinguished on the industrial or export value. The Italian manufacturing industry is based first of all on import raw materials.
The leading branch of the Italian industry - mechanical engineering - gives 1/4 all productions of manufacturing industry and wins first place on number occupied (about 2 million persons). It is able to provide almost all basic needs of the country in cars.